The battery swap in just 1.5 minutes eliminates waiting times as necessary with the plug-in system, DC-plug-in included. This ensures productive fleet operation. Battery swapping leads to higher user frequencies which allows e-fueling stations to offer discount prices, Classic Comfort, dual-use storage service as well as system-internal network relief (systemic controlled charging instead of network problems due to permanent battery-aggregation).
In addition to the battery swapping, centralized plug-in systems with controlled charging create a one point offer for all plug-in vehicles. It includes normal plug-in and quick plug-in. The energy storage (usually: 2 x 0.7 MW containers) is loaded network-compliant and hence controlled.
As a result, the charging station dilemma (see extreme allocation, oversupply obligations) can be eliminated in many places. Vehicles with interchangeable swapping technology can also use this offer using an additional cable.
Due to nuclear phase-out in 2022 and the coal phase-out in 2038, the expansion of heat pumps, 5G and the E-mobility turnaround the demand for control power (primary, secondary, tertiary control power) will increase exponentially.
In the super hubs, recycled second-hand batteries as storage for secondary and tertiary regulating energy plus for redundancy and active vehicle batteries (see battery swapping stations) can be enabled to fully meet the increasing demand for balancing storage systems (connection of grid and mobility) with the help of inverters and energy and battery management systems.
Among other things, the introduction of e-mobility has to cope with high electricity costs related to charging a car battery. In many places, the kWh for a home connection user already costs about 30 cents; charging poles often demand about 40 cents/kWh (up to 70 cents for DC-plug-in). Since modern Diesel and gasoline vehicles are partly below 20 cents/kWh, the advantage of e-mobiles is still not comprehensible in terms of price.
Due to the large number of users and the status of the e-fuelling stations (super hub), however, the required amounts of electricity can be purchased at 5-6 cents/kWh, if the extra-costs can be embanked. In addition, additional income can be generated by providing control power, so that these factors accumulated can allow a kWh price of about 20 cents. As a result the system remains fully and cumulative competitive with “fossil” drive types.
Battery swapping with battery-friendly controlled recharging works is without any problems when vehicles are equipped with a compatible swapping frame and when the battery dimensions are compatible with the dimensional requirements of the swapping system. Eg. Retrofitting of our partner EDAG allows for Diesel vehicles and all forms of plug-in-vehicles to be converted into electric cars with battery swapping frames (retro-fit program).
In due course, the newest battery-innovations with longer lifespans can be used if the dimensions allow. Regardless, the currently inserted lithium-ion batteries are exorbitantly conserved in the super hub if they are not charged quickly, but instead are charged in ≤ 0.5 C after a battery swap and then used for continuous grid stabilization. The smart grid is relieved by the possibilities provided by car accumulators and the car batteries are kept efficient by the control energy use. Lifespan-effect overall: factor 4-5 compared to fast charging.
The focus on house connections and charging poles automatically leads to the death of the regular petrol stations. The comfort of "fossil" petrol stations and its provided services including car wash, late night shopping etc. would no longer exist. The super hub offers an attractive vision for the future use of petrol stations. A high frequency could also secure sufficient revenue in additional service areas.
The German municipalities and their approximately 900 local networks are warned by experts that lacking provision starting extremly in 2032 can lead to nationwide power grid blackouts (95 % probability). The resulting consequences have to be faced in the near future! The preparation of the distribution networks must start now, as local blackouts in sub-networks are likely to occur as early as 2022. The common decalculation of probabilities and extrapolating of resilience is only of theoretical nature and does not spare the municipalities and their partners from defined and individual blackout precaution.
In view of the tense financial situation and current economic outlook, it is required to invest and budget particularly sustainably. Therefore the focus should be put on charging infrastructures that themselves contribute to blackout prevention: through controlled recharging (minimum ≤ 0.5 C) and the provision of storage capacity. With the gradually growing infrastructure of the super hub system, billions of euros of network expansion investments can be saved nationwide without any risk!